The method of speech development is defined as a way of activity of a teacher and children, ensuring the formation of speech skills.
There are three groups of methods – visual, verbal and practical. This division is very arbitrary since there is no sharp border between them. Visual methods are accompanied by the word, and verbal methods use visual techniques. Practical methods are also associated with the word, and with visual material. The assignment of some methods and techniques to visual, others to verbal or practical depends on the predominance of visual, word or action as the source and basis of utterance.
Visual methods are used more often in kindergarten. Both direct and indirect methods are used. To directly apply the method of observation and its variants: tours, inspections of the premises, viewing natural objects. These methods are aimed at the accumulation of speech content and provide a connection between two signaling systems. Indirect methods are based on the use of Images striking clarity. This examination of toys, paintings, photographs, a description of paintings and toys, storytelling on toys and paintings. They are used to consolidate knowledge, vocabulary development of the generalizing function of the word by learning coherent speech. Indirect medMethods can also be used to familiarize oneself with objects and phenomena that are impossible to get to know directly.
Verbal methods in kindergarten used less often. This reading and storytelling art works, repetition, retelling, summarizing the discussion, races skazyvanie without relying on visual material. All verbal methods use visual techniques: displaying objects, toys, paintings, looking at illustrations, since the age characteristics of young children and the nature of the word itself require visualization.
Practical methods are aimed at the application of speech skills and their improvement. Practical methods include various didactic games, dramatization games, dramatization, didactic exercises, plastic studies, round dance games. They are used to solve all speech problems.
Depending on the nature of children’s speech activity, reproductive and productive methods can be conditionally distinguished.
Reproductive methods are based on the reproduction of speech material and finished samples. In kindergarten, they are used mainly in vocabulary work that helps in the work of raising the sound culture of speech, less in the formation of grammatical skills and coherent speech.
Productive methods presuppose that children build their own coherent statements, when the child does not just reproduce the language units he knows, but selects and combines them every time in a new way, adapting to the communication situation. In this lies the creative nature of speech activity. From this it is obvious that productive methods are used in teaching coherent speech. These include generalizing conversation, storytelling, retelling with text restructuring, didactic games for the development of coherent speech, a modeling method, and creative tasks.
There is also no sharp boundary between productive and reproductive methods. Elements of creativity is in the reproductive techniques and the reproduction of elements – in about inductance. Their ratio fluctuates. For example, if in a vocabulary exercise if children choose the most suitable word from their vocabulary to characterize the subject, then the first task is more creative in comparison with the same choice of words from a series of given or by repeating after the tutor when examining and examining objects. In independent storytelling, creativity and reproduction can also manifest themselves in different ways in the stories according to the pattern, plan, proposed topic. The characterization of well-known methods in terms of the nature of speech activity will allow more conscious use of them in the practice of working with children.