What Is Anodontia and How to Treat It

Sometimes dentists see patients with absent teeth. They may be missing partially or completely due to loss or improper development of the dentofacial system. This condition is called anodontia.

The doctor evaluates the primary signs during a visual examination and the exact diagnosis is confirmed by radiography or orthopantomography. Treatment is carried out exclusively with prosthetics. Removable dentures are made to replace the missing teeth or dental implantation is performed.

Disease Classification

Anodontia is the absence of some teeth in the oral cavity. Pathology can be either congenital or acquired. In addition, there are varieties of the manifestation of the disease: both temporary and permanent teeth can be absent. In this case, the true primary disease is characterized by the fact that even the tooth germ is absent. In some cases, directed research shows the fusion of adjacent crowns or a serious increase in the timing of the appearance of certain teeth – this is a false anodontia.

Common anodontia causes:

  • inflammatory processes in the oral cavity
  • general chronic diseases
  • hereditary predisposition, congenital anomalies – the causes of primary anodontia
  • endocrine system diseases
  • injuries

What Is Partial Anodontia?

Partial anodontia is the absence of several teeth. Such pathology are  considered the most common oral cavity diseases. Despite the fact that many people consider this problem insignificant, it must be treated immediately. The absence of fangs and incisors can lead to problems with speech and biting off food. The consequence of the absence of chewing teeth may be the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases.

What Is Full Anodontia?

Full anodontia is the most serve kind of pathology. Such patients are characterized by facial deformation, sunken cheeks, and stretched skin. Premature aging of the facial skin is also observed. In most patients, speech and eating disorders also occur. In addition, this pathology greatly affects the psychological state of a person. Such patients, usually suffer from self-doubt.

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What Is Congenital Anodontia in Children?

The complete absence of teeth in children is rare. Doctors often diagnose partial anodontia, manifested in the absence of upper incisors, lower second premolars, third molars, and upper second premolars. The best pediatric dentist considers that the reasons for this pathology are maternal health problems and a genetic predisposition. Congenital anodontia in children is treated with the orthodontic method using adhesively fixed prostheses designed for age-related changes.

Anodontia Symptoms

Symptoms of the primary and secondary forms of the disease are different from each other. The characteristics of primary anodontia are skeleton development disorders, non-growth of some jawbones, nasal breathing disorders, speech impairment, inability to eat solid food.

Signs of secondary anodontia include displacement of the jaw to the nose, the presence of many wrinkles on the face, the formation of bone protrusions, destruction of bone tissue, and the occurrence of pain.

Full Anodontia of the Lower Jaw Prosthetics

The most common method of treating full anodontia is plate-based prosthetics. Such designs, usually consist of artificial palate and dentition. Dentures are made of acrylic, silicone, and nylon. For better fixation, prostheses are attached to the gums with the help of special gels. Prosthetics with full anodontia of the lower jaw will help to solve not only problems with biting and chewing food but also to avoid many self-doubts.

Preventative Measures

Prevention of anodontia in children includes regular visits to the dentist, timely treatment of cavities, and prevention of deformation of the dentition of teeth. Preventive measures in adulthood almost do not differ from the above. These include the treatment of cavities, preventive dental examinations, and oral hygiene. These measures will help prevent tooth loss or minimize it.

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